Tagged: encryption

Updated: X11

The information in this site is the result of my researches in the Internet and of my experiences. This information below is solely used for my purpose and may not be suitable for others.


After installing x11-base/xorg-drivers and x11-base/xorg-server, X11 may exit with errors complaining, missing twm, xterm, xclock. When that happens, installing these components will fix the issue and hopefully X11 will start.# emerge --ask twm xterm xclock

That's all!

FreeBSD: gptzfsboot: No ZFS pools located, can’t boot on FreeBSD 11-RELEASE

Last time (a few years back) when I tried to install FreeBSD with zfs on my HP Pavilion dm3-1130us notebook, I got the following error message during the boot: gptzfsboot: error 66 lba 48 error 72 gptzfsboot: error 66 lba 0 gptzfsboot: error 66 lba 1 gptzfsboot: No ZFS pools located, can't boot.

I searched around for a solution but couldn't find any so I gave up on FreeBSD.

Years after, meaning recently, I gave FreeBSD 11-RELEASE a new shot, hoping that zfs boot up problem was resolved by now. *BAM* I got the same error after installing it with zfs. For desperation, I searched again and again. Tried building partition table manually, updating bootcode after the installation, etc... But nothing worked... I even tried TrueOS (FreeBSD with zfs and more) but got the same problem after the installation. Sob...

But finally, I found a solution (sort of)!!!

Here is what I tried. I don't think the installation medium makes difference but I used a USB boot image.

The information in this site is the result of my researches in the Internet and of my experiences. This information below is solely used for my purpose and may not be suitable for others.

Step 1) Download the FreeBSD memstick image. Find the latest release version (as of this writing, it's 11.0) from the freebsd.org ftp site.

Step 2) dd the memstick image to a USB memory stick. The USB device name could be different depending on which OS you are using, but for FreeBSD, I read somewhere that said you need to use FreeBSD to make a bootable USB memory stick. So, I installed FreeBSD 11-RELEASE with UFS and ran the command: # dd if=FreeBSD-11.0-RELEASE-amd64-memstick.img of=/dev/da0 bs=1M conv=sync

Step 3)Reboot with the USB memory stick inserted. Leave the USB memory stick attached to the notebook, rebooted the system. FreeBSD will boot and it'll present with three options; Install, Shell or Live CD. I chose Install.

Step 4) Install the system but at the partitioning, choose Auto ZFS:

Here is the zfs configuration:

Step 5) Go through the rest of the installation until it asks you for the last manual configuration. Select Yes to update gptzfsboot and bootdcode:

Step 6) Get the updated gptzfsboot_hp from the FreeBSD Bugzilla. The url is listed in Allan Jude at Comment 29. If you are not configured its networking, enable dhcp client: # dhclient re0

Then download gptzfsboot_hp by fetching from the location # fetch --no-verify-peer http://trooper.hml3.scaleengine.net/gptzfsboot_hp

Step 7) Rename gptzfsboot_hp to gptzfsboot and move it to /boot.

Step 8) Update the bootcode. Make sure you are using /boot/pmbr for the GPT partition type: # gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr -p /boot/gptzfsboot -i 1 ada0

Step 9) Make sure the partition scheme and it's for the ada0 disk. Occasionally, its disk ID is changed to something like diskid/DISK-.... If this happens, use that disk name/id instead of ada0 at the Step 8.

Step 10) Reboot the system.

After the reboot, you would see the prompt for GELI Passphrase. However, this solution solved the boot up problem with ZFS. I still see the error 66 with lba: gptzfsboot: error 66 lba 48 error 72 gptzfsboot: error 66 lba 0 gptzfsboot: error 66 lba 1 GELI Passphrase for disk0p3:

After entering GELI passphrase correctly, voilĂ , you'll see the login prompt!

That's all!

Installing Arch Linux: LVM on top of an encrypted partition [[UPDATED]]

Years back, I was using Arch Linux on my notebook but gave up at some point after upgrading Arch Linux made my notebook unbootable. After some distro hoppings, I settled down with Debian Linux and it has been my friend since then. But now, out of a whim, I decided to give another try on Arch.

I'll be installing Arch Linux on the same notebook and I wanted the encryption on a disk/partition like before. I looked around some options from the Arch Linux Wiki. I read up on LVM on LUKS, LUKS on LVM, and Plain dm-crypt and decided to go with LVM on LUKS again. One of benefits for LUKS on LVM is that it can have encrypted volumes span multiple disks. It's nice but I don't need it since there is only one disk for the notebook. Plain dm-crypt can encrypt an entire disk and this is nice and ideal but having a USB flash memory around is a bit overkill for me. So, I'll stick with LVM on LUKS again.

I then followed my old post, Installing Arch Linux: LVM on top of an encrypted partition. What do you know? The information on that page was not wrong but was a bit confusing or hard to follow (not to mention about the number of typos. Sheesh!). So, I decided to re-do the whole steps, including the base installation of Arch Linux on LVM. Most of the information here will be duplicates from old one but please bare with me.

Information below is gathered mostly from the Arch Linux Wiki page and changed here and there for my liking. This information below is solely used for my purpose and may not be suitable for others.

Erasure of the Hard Disk:

Information (data) on a Hard Drive is written in chunk here and there. Re-partitioning or reformatting a disk does not really removes (erase) the data. It merely remove the system structure that used to identify where the original data was located. This leaves the actual data on a disk.

To securely erase a disk, you could either:

  • Fill with zeros
  • Fill with random bits

Both methods overwrite data on a disk but the first one fill with zero's leaving easily (to some extent) identify where the encrypted data ends. So, I follow the second method. # dd if=/dev/urandom of=/dev/<drive> bs=1M Just to be warned, this takes a long, long time.

Partitioning a Disk:

There is a way to encrypt the /boot partition with GRUB (for details, see Pavel Kogan's blog), but for simplicity, I'll stick with having the /boot partition separated from the encryption and LVM. # fdisk /dev/sda

Partition Layout:
/dev/sda1 -> /boot (bootable) - 300MB should be enough.
/dev/sda2 -> LVM (8e) - the rest of the disk

Configuring LUKS:

cryptsetup is used to interface with LUKS for formatting, mounting and unmounting encrypted partition.

First make sure the device mapper kernel module is installed: # modprobe dm-mod

Then format it as an encrypted LUKS partition: # cryptsetup --cipher aes-xts-plain64 --key-size 512 --hash sha512 luksFormat /dev/sda2

  • --cipher: defines the cipher type
  • --key-size: defines the key size
  • --hash sha512: hash algorithm used for key derivation.

It looks like AES cipher in XTS mode (XTS-AES) is most popular these days.

Unlocking/Mapping LUKS partition with the Device Mapper:

To access the encrypted volume, It needs to be unlocked. # cryptsetup open --type luks /dev/sda2 lvm


Create a physical volume (encrypted volume) and a group volume. # lvm pvcreate /dev/mapper/lvm # lvm vgcreate lvmvg /dev/mapper/lvm

Create logical volumes on this new volume group. # lvm lvcreate -L 10G -n root lvmvg # lvm lvcreate -L 500M -n swap lvmvg # lvm lvcreate -l 100%FREE -n home lvmvg

Format the filesystems on each logical volume. # mkfs.ext4 /dev/mapper/lvmvg-root # mkfs.ext4 /dev/mapper/lvmvg-home # mkswap /dev/mapper/lvmvg-swap

Mount the filesystems. # mount /dev/mapper/lvmvg-root /mnt # mkdir /mnt/home # mount /dev/mapper/lvmvg-home /mnt/home # swapon /dev/mapper/lvmvg-swap

Prepare the boot partition. # mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1 # mkdir /mnt/boot # mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/boot

Configure Wireless Network:

Network connection needs to be configured before the installation can take a place. Since my notebook uses WiFi, I need to configure wireless network.

Check for the network interface and whether udev has loaded the driver. # iwconfig -------------------- eth0 no wireless extensions. lo no wireless extensions. wlan0 IEE 802.11bgn ESSID:off/any Mode:Managed Access Point: Not-Associated Tx-Power=14 dBm Retry long limit:7 RTS thr:off Fragment thr:off Encryption key:off Power Management:on

It looks like wlan0 is available.

Interface activation:

Not required for mine but here is how to activate # ip link set wlan0 up

Access point discovery:

I know my network information like ESSID, Encryption key, etc..., but here is how to list available access points # iwlist wlan0 scan | less

Or, for the new netlink interface # iw dev wlan0 scan | less

Association to the access point

Now a configuration file, /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf, needs to be created for my access point. # vi /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf -------------------- ctrl_interface=DIR=/var/run/wpa_supplicant GROUP=wheel eapol_version=1 ap_scan=1 fast_reauth=1

These options are explained in /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf

Append the passphrase and PSK to the file # wpa_passphrase SSID_NAME "PASSPHRASE" >> /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf

Manual connection:

The WiFi interface should be up by the earlier command ip link set wlan0 up, so now tell wpa_supplicant the driver (wext - Linux Wireless EXTensions), the SSID specified in /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf and the wireless interface. # wpa_supplicant -B -Dwext -i wlan0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf

  • -B : Run in the background
  • -D : Driver information. Default is WEXT
  • -i : Wireless interface
  • -c : Configuration file

Request an IP address to DHCP server. # dhcpcd wlan0

Check assigned IP address. # ip addr show wlan0 wlan0: mtu 1500 qdisc mq state UP qlen 1000 link/ether 00:00:00:00:00:00: brb ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff inet brb scope global wlan0 inet6 fe80::ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff/64 scope link valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

Select installation mirror:

Before installing, you may want to edit /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist such that your preferred mirror is first. This copy of the mirrorlist will be installed on your new system by pacstrap as well, so it's worth getting it right.

Install the base system and other package groups:

The base system is installed using the pacstrap script. pacstrap is a script that installs packages to the specified new root directory. If no packages are given, pacstrap defaults to the "base" group.

Required X Window Systems packages for openbox will be installed in post-installation configuration.

The system uses wireless network, so install the required wireless network packages. # pacstrap /mnt base base-devel wireless_tools wpa_supplicant wpa_actiond


Let's configure the primary configuration files.

Generate an fstab file:

The fstab file contains static filesystem information. It defines how storage devices and partitions are to be mounted and integrated into the overall system. It is read by the mount command to determine which options to use when mounting a specific device or partition.

Check the resulting file afterwards, especially watch for the swap entry. # genfstab -p /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab # vi /mnt/etc/fstab -------------------- ... /dev/mapper/lvm-swap none swap defaults 0 0

Chroot into the system (Change root into the new system):

# arch-chroot /mnt

Editing /etc/rc.conf:

/etc/rc.conf is the configuration file for Arch's initscripts. Some of options in this file has been obsolete and they now have own configuration files (ex: hostname, etc...). /etc/rc.conf still configures daemons to start during boot-up and some networking and storage information.

Since LVM is used on this system, I need to enable it so that the kernel knows about it.

# vi /etc/rc.conf -------------------- USELVM="yes"


Configuring hostname requires updating two files, /etc/hostname and /etc/hosts

Add hostname in /etc/hostname # cat > /etc/hostname archy64 ^D

Add hostname in /etc/hosts # vi /etc/hosts -------------------- localhost.localdomain localhost archy64 ::1 localhost.localdomain localhost archy64

Console fonts and keymap:

The console, meaning a terminal running with no X Window System, uses the ASCII character set as the default.

A console font is limited to either 256 or 512 characters. The fonts are found in /usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/.

Keymaps, the connection between the key pressed and the character used by the computer, are found in the subdirectories of /usr/share/kbd/keymaps/ # cat > /etc/vconsole.conf KEYMAP=us FONT= FONT_MAP= ^D

  • KEYMAP - the default (us) is ok
  • FONT - the default (blank) is ok
  • FONT_MAP - the default (blank) is ok


Available time zones and subzones can be found in the /usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone> directories.

Create a symlink /etc/localtime to zone file. # ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/US/Eastern /etc/localtime


Choose the locale(s) from /etc/locale.gen and uncomment them. # vi /etc/locale.gen -------------------- en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8 -------------------- # locale-gen

Setting up system-wide locale:

# cat > /etc/locale.conf LANG=en_US.UTF-8 LC_TIME=en_US.UTF-8 ^D

Set the LANG variable for the ramdisk creation # export LANG=en_US.UTF-8

Hardware clock time:

It's recommended to use UTC. # hwclock --systohc --utc

Create an initial ramdisk environment:

Configure /etc/mkinitcpio.conf for encryption and LVM by adding encrypt lvm2 (in this order) in the HOOKS section before filesystems so that the kernel will find LVM volumes at boot time. # vi /etc/mkinitcpio.conf -------------------- HOOKS="...encrypt lvm2 filesystems..."

Now generate the kernel image. # cd /boot # mkinitcpio -p linux

Install and configure a bootloader:

# pacman -S grub-bios os-prober # grub-install --recheck /dev/sda

Create a grub configuration file. # grub-mkconfig --output /boot/grub/grub.cfg


Add cryptdevice=/dev/sda2:lvmvg between root=... and ro in the line starts with linux. This needs to be done for "Arch Linux" and "Arch Linux Fallback". # vi /boot/grub/grub.cfg -------------------- linux /boot/vmlinuz-linux root=/dev/mapper/lvmvg-root cryptdevice=/dev/sda2:lvmvg ro quiet

Root password:

Set the root password now. # passwd


Exit from chroot, unmount the partitions, close the device and reboot. # exit # umount -R /mnt/boot # umount -R /mnt # cryptsetup close lvm # reboot

After rebooting, it should ask you for a passphrase like below:


Updating the system:

Sync, refresh, and upgrade the entire new system. # pacman -Syu (or pacman --sync --refresh --sysupgrade)

Pacman will now download a fresh copy of the master package list from the server(s) defined in /etc/pacman.conf and perform all available upgrades.

Note: If you get following errors after executing above statement, it most likely you don't have dhcpcd is not running or your network setting is not correct.

error: failed retrieving file '...' from ... : Could not resolve host: ...

Pacman output is saved in /var/log/pacman.log

Adding a user:

Now add a normal user account for daily tasks # useradd -m -g users -G audio,games,log,lp,optical,power,scanner,storage,video,wheel -s /bin/bash ubyt3m3

Set a password for ubyt3m3 # passwd ubyt3m3

X Window System:

The X Window System (commonly X11, or X) is a networking and display protocol which provides windowing on bitmap displays. It provides the standard toolkit and protocol to build graphical user interfaces (GUIs).

Before installing the X11, try to see what kind of video card you have # lspci | grep -e VGA -e 3D

Then install the base Xorg packages using pacman. # pacman -S xorg-server xorg-xinit xorg-server-utils

During the installation, it'll ask you for the type of libgl. Use below information based on the type of video card you have (returned value from the lspci command above), choose a proper driver.

xf86-video-amdgpu ... mesa-libgl
xf86-video-ati ... mesa-libgl
catalyst ... catalyst-libgl

xf86-video-intel ... mesa-libgl

xf86-video-nouveau ... mesa-libgl
nvidia ... nvidia-libgl
nvidia-340xx ... nvidia-340xx-libgl
nvidia-304xx ... nvidia-304xx-libgl

Install video driver:

My system came with ATI Graphics Card, so install the open source raden driver. # pacman -S xf86-video-ati

Install input driver:

Since this install is for notebook, following package is needed for touchpad. # pacman -S xf86-input-synaptics

Are you installing Arch Linux as VirtualBox Guest?

If you are like me, you'd test the installation of OS or software on a virtual system before actually installing on main systems. I use VirtualBox for that. In order for Arch Linux to run X11 within the VirtualBox guest environment, VirtualBox Guest Additions need to be installed. # pacman -S virtualbox-guest-utils

After executing above command, it'll ask you for guest modules. Choose virtualbox-guest-modules-arch if you used linux kernel when you ran mkinitcpio -p linux during the configuration period. For other modules, use virtualbox-guest-dkms

Loading the VirtualBox kernel modules:

Before getting X11 work on the guest environment, VirtualBox kernel modules must be loaded. To do this automatically, enable the vboxservice service. # systemctl enable vboxservice

Load the modules # modprobe -a vboxguest vboxsf vboxvideo

Testing X:

Install the default environment. # pacman -S xorg-twm xorg-xclock xterm


Install a set of TrueType fonts, as only unscalable bitmap fonts are included by default. DejaVu is a set of high quality. # pacman -S ttf-dejavu

Now, that's a very base system. If you are interested in installing Openbox, you can follow steps in my post, Openbox (w/ Arch Linux).

That's all!

Debian Wheezy (7.5): Accessing the Encrypted Partition From the Recovery System

Continued from my previous post, Debian Wheezy (7.5): Encrypted Root Filesystem on laptop.

In my previous post, I created an extra partition for recovery system that could be used to repair the main system in a situation where it becomes corrupted or un-bootable. But how exactly can I access it from the recovery system? Well, steps described below is something I would try, in other words, just a theory. If you know a better (correct) way, or if I'm doing wrong, please feel free to comment!

The information in this site is the result of my researches in the Internet and of my experiences. It is solely used for my purpose and may not be suitable for others. I will NOT take any responsibility of end result after following these steps (although I will try to help if you send me your questions/problems).

Booting Into the Recovery System

At the GRUB menu, choose the Recovery system. In my case it's on /dev/sda2.

Accessing Encrypted Device with `cryptsetup luksOpen`

First, let's see my partition layout: # parted (parted) p Model: ATA WDC WD3200BEKT-6 (scsi) Disk /dev/sda: 320GB Sector Size (logical/physical): 512B/512B Partition Table: gpt Number Start End Size File system Name Flags 1 1049kB 310GB 310GB 2 310GB 320GB 10.1GB ext4 (parted) q

Since /dev/sda1 is encrypted with crypt-luks, normal mount command would not work. # mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/main mount: unknown filesystem type 'crypto_LUKS'

So it needs to be opened to access the encrypted device. This process requires your passphrase. This will create /dev/mapper/unlocked. # cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sda1 unlocked Enter passphrase for /dev/sda1:

Can we mount the device now? Nope. Because it's LVM.

Accessing LVM

First install lvm2. # apt-get install lvm2

If you get the following warnings after executing above command:

update-initramfs: Generating /boot/initrd.img-3.2.0-4-amd64
W: Possible missing firmware /lib/firmware/rtl_nic/rtl8168f-2.fw for module r8169
W: Possible missing firmware /lib/firmware/rtl_nic/rtl8168f-1.fw for module r8169
W: Possible missing firmware /lib/firmware/rtl_nic/rtl8105e-1.fw for module r8169
W: Possible missing firmware /lib/firmware/rtl_nic/rtl8168e-3.fw for module r8169
W: Possible missing firmware /lib/firmware/rtl_nic/rtl8168e-2.fw for module r8169
W: Possible missing firmware /lib/firmware/rtl_nic/rtl8168e-1.fw for module r8169
W: Possible missing firmware /lib/firmware/rtl_nic/rtl8168d-2.fw for module r8169
W: Possible missing firmware /lib/firmware/rtl_nic/rtl8168d-1.fw for module r8169

You need to add contrib and non-free repositories to /etc/apt/sources.list: # vim /etc/apt/sources.list -------------------------------------- deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian wheezy main contrib non-free # apt-get update Then install the firmware-realtek package: # apt-get install firmware-realtek

Then load the necessary module. # modprobe dm-mod

Scan the system for LVM volumes and identify the volume group name in the output. # vgscan Reading all physical volumes. This may take a while... Found volume group "debian" using metadata type lvm2

Activate the volume. # vgchange -ay debian 2 logical volume(s) in volume group "debian" now active

Then find the logical volume that has the root filesystem # lvs LV VG Attr LSize Pool Origin Data% Move Log Copy% Convert root debian -wi-a--- 284.98g swap debian -wi-a--- 3.72g

Mounting It Now!

Now all the preparation is done. It's time to mount it. # mount -o ro,user /dev/debian/root /mnt/unlocked # ls mnt/unlocked bin etc lib media proc sbin sys var boot home lib64 mnt root selinux tmp vmlinuz dev initrd.img lost+found opt run srv usr

VoilĂ ! Successfully mounted!

That's all!

Debian Wheezy (7.5): Encrypted Root Filesystem on laptop

I'm not a distro-hopper. Well, that's what I thought but I'm probably wrong (and nothing wrong with being a distro-hopper!). On my main system, I'm using Slackware since its version 9 or 10. However, on my laptop (HP Pavilion dm3-1130us), I tried RHCE, Fedora, Xubuntu, Mint, CrunchBang, Arch, and FreeBSD. Each distro had its pros and cons but it didn't really stick to me. I liked FreeBSD the best among them but it drained the battery and heated up my laptop compared to other distros. Also I couldn't get some of hardware components (ex: built-in webcam) working. I believe FreeBSD is an excellent OS for servers but probably not for laptops so much. So, I was in a quest for another distro again and decided to try on Debian.

Disclaimer: The information in this site is the result of my researches in the Internet and of my experiences. It is solely used for my purpose and may not be suitable for others. I will NOT take any responsibility of end result after following these steps (although I will try to help if you send me your questions/problems).

Now onto Debian. As other distributions, I wanted to try encrypted disk/filesystem(s) for my laptop. After a bit of research, I came across to this article. Interesting. My laptop doesn't have a CD/DVD drive, either, but I never thought of having a recovery partition in case of emergency. So I decided to give it a try with this method. Since this article is a bit outdated, I'll describe it with most recent version of Debian (Wheezy) and add some steps.

1. Creating Bootable USB Stick

Download the netinst.iso image from Debian website and create a bootable USB stick. # dd if=debian-7.5-0-amd64-netinst.iso of=/dev/sdX

2. Setting Up Recovery System

Start the Debian installer. Since I love OpenBox, I select below options for the installation.
Advanced options -> Alternative desktop environments -> LXDE -> Graphical install
Follow the installer until you get to set the hostname. I set it as debianrecov for recovery. Follow it until you get to "Partition disks" and select Manual. Here is the partition scheme to use:
  • Main partition for LVM and encrypted, taking up the whole disk minus 3GB. Set it as Do not use for now.
  • 3GB recovery partition at the end of the disk. This will be /boot for the main system. (3GB is an arbitrary size I picked. I tried with 1GB and the installation failed when installing packages.)
    - Set it as ext4 mounted as "/" - Set its label as "recovery"
Choose Finish partitioning and write changes to disk. It'll then warn you that there is no partition for swap space and ask you whether to return to the partition menu. Just select No and follow the rest of the installation. Reboot your system and make sure it boots up without any issues.

3. Setting Up Main System

Now boot the Debian installer again. Select the same options for the installation and follow it until you get to "Partition disks". Select Manual. Select the main partition and hit the Continue button. Then choose physical volume for encryption for "Use as:". debian_install_1 Select "Done setting up the partition". Next select "Configure encrypted volumes". Then "Create encrypted volumes" and choose the main partition. After selecting "Yes" for erasing data on the partition, it'll start randomizing it. This will take very long time (on my laptop, it took more than 10 hours). When it's done, it'll ask for a passphrase. This is the phrase you type at every boot and it is not recoverable so don't forget it! Select the contents of the "disk" Encrypted volume and debian_install_2 Next, select physical volume for LVM for "Use as:" and choose "Done setting up the partition". Then select Configure the Logical Volume Manager and create a Volume Group. The original article uses the hostname for the Volume Group to reduce confusion if the disk is plugged into another machine for disaster recovery. I think that's a great idea. Create a Logical Volume called swap. If you plan to use suspend-to-disk, this needs to be at least as large as your RAM. Create a Logical Volume called root. Set the swap Logical Volume you just created to be used as a swap area and your root Logical Volume to be used as ext4 mounted at "/". Also set your recovery partition to be used as ext4, mounted on "/boot", and the format partition option to "no, keep existing data". This is how the partition layout looks like: debian_install_3 Proceed with the rest of the installation and reboot the system when it's done.

4. Making Them Dual-boot

In the original article, it now talks about setting up dual-boot. Debian Wheezy uses GRUB2 and menu.lst is no longer available. However, it should automatically detect your recovery system and it should look like below during GRUB menu: debian_install_4 If your recovery system is missing, you could try running the update-grub2 command in your main system: # update-grub2 Generating grub.cfg ... Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-3.2.0-4-amd64 Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-3.2.0-4-amd64 Found Debian GNU/Linux (7.5) on /dev/sda2 done If update-grub2 did not work, make sure that the recovery partition was set to be ext4, mounted on "/boot", and the format partition option was set to "no, keep existing data" at the end of Step 3 above. Tomorrow, I'll talk about accessing main system's area from recovery system. That's all! -gibb